Does it also reset when not connected to the breadboard?
Make sure you’re not pulling over the 1A the AMS1117 can provide on the 3.3V rail and check to make sure the GPIOs are in the correct state to boot from flash
GPIO 0: HIGH
GPIO 2: HIGH
GPIO 15: LOW
It’s possible your NodeMCU (or clone) is poorly implemented as with chinesium jelly bean parts