Yes you should remove the linear regulator because that’s connected to the VIN line and it’s very likely to have been damaged.

To solder reliably, you need to keep the soldering iron hot. Otherwise it may not reflow the solder well, causing fake solder joints. Normally fake solder joints won’t cause a big problem, but in some cases they will. For example, if the ‘Feedback’ pin of the switching regulator is not soldered well, it will cause the regulator to falsely sense that the output voltage has not yet reached the desired level, hence it will keep increasing the output voltage and that will potentially damage the components connected on the output line.